Carol Margaret Barron writes: “children are not passive, powerless recipients of this surveillance; rather they tell us of their forms of negotiation and resistance to monitoring of their play spaces. Children’s resistance to monitoring of their mobility in time and space unfolds in an on-going dialogue between parents and children … While adults may use the mobile phone as an invisible surveillant device, children completely turned the mobile phone to their advantage in resisting this surveillance through a variety of means (e.g. using text-only to communicate with parents enabled the children to say they were in a specific, special location when this was not always truthful). Indeed, the mobile phone is quite possibly a mechanism employed by children in middle childhood to actually increase their spatial mobility, thus increasing their autonomy and independence, which are normal elements of child development.”

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