Jarno Koponen presents us with six reasons why personalization algorithms that profile us and serve us information are so wrong:
1. “Data gap … any algorithmic environment has only a limited amount of data about you”
2. “Computing gap … limitations of computing power and machine-learning technologies”
3. “Interest gap … conflicting interests of users, platforms and third-party actors (e.g., marketers)”
4. “Action gap … incongruity between your true actions and the ones that are at your disposal”
5. “Content gap … any platform or application doesn’t always have content that serves your exact intentions or needs”
6. Internal paradox: “Personalization promises to modify your digital experience based on your personal interests and preferences. Simultaneously, personalization is used to shape you, to influence you and guide your everyday choices and actions. Inaccessible and incomprehensible algorithms make autonomous decisions on your behalf. They reduce the amount of visible choices, thus restricting your personal agency.”